Ranged Attack. Use a ranged weapon, such as a longbow, or utilize the thrown property of a melee weapon, such as a dagger. A monster might shoot spines from its tail. Many spells involve making a ranged attack.
The target must be within range. There is normal range and long range for weapons.
You can attack a target with ½ or ¾ cover but not full cover.
The various crossbows and the blowgun have the loading property. Your rate of fire is limited.
Magical ranged weapons and ammunition.
Some melee weapons, for example a dagger or spear, can be thrown as a ranged attack.
You can throw a bottle, frying pan, or a special item such as acid or alchemist's fire, as an improvised weapon.